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2014考研英语(二)真题及答案解析

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 一、试题部分

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Thinner isn't always better. A number of studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health.

  Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese.

  While such numerical standards seem ___9___, they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, ___10___ others with a low BMI may be in poor___11___.For example, many collegiate and professional football players ___12___ as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a ___13___ BMI.

  Today we have a(an) ___14___ to label obesity as a disgrace. The overweight are sometimes___15___ in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes ___16___ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power, and lower prospects for success. Teachers, employers, and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. ___17___ very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.

  Negative attitudes toward obesity, ___18___ in health concerns, have stimulated a number of anti-obesity ___19___. My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities.Many employers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives. Michelle Obama has launched a high-visibility campaign__20___ childhood obesity, even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat.

  1. [A] denied [B] conduced [C] doubled [D] ensured

  2. [A] protective [B] dangerous [C] sufficient [D]troublesome

  3. [A] Instead [B] However [C] Likewise [D] Therefore

  4. [A] indicator [B] objective [C] origin [D] example

  5. [A] impact [B] relevance [C] assistance [D] concern

  6. [A] in terms of [B] in case of [C] in favor of [D] in of

  7. [A] measures [B] determines [C] equals [D] modifies

  8. [A] in essence [B] in contrast [C] in turn [D] in part

  9. [A] complicated [B] conservative [C] variable [D] straightforward

  10. [A] so [B] while [C] since [D] unless

  11. [A] shape [B] spirit [C] balance [D] taste

  12. [A] start [B] quality [C] retire [D] stay

  13. [A] strange [B] changeable [C] normal [D] constant

  14. [A] option [B] reason [C] opportunity [D] tendency

  15. [A] employed [B] pictured [C] imitated [D] monitored

  16. [A] compared [B] combined [C] settled [D] associated

  17. [A] Even [B] Still [C] Yet [D] Only

  18. [A] despised [B] corrected [C] ignored [D] grounded

  19. [A] discussions [B] businesses [C] policies [D] studies

  20. [A] for [B] against [C] with [D] without

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  What would you do with 590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton.

  These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time-as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.

  This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most "happiness bang for your buck." It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib - a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.

  Readers of "Happy Money" are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors' policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.

  21. According to Dumn and Norton, which of the following is the most rewarding purchase?

  [A]A big house [B]A special tour [C]A stylish car [D]A rich meal

  22. The author's attitude toward Americans' watching TV is________.

  [A]critical [B]supportive [C]sympathetic [D]ambiguous

  23. Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 to show that_______.

  [A]consumers are sometimes irrational

  [B]popularity usually comes after quality

  [C]marketing tricks are after effective

  [D]rarity generally increases pleasure

     

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